Resumen. El presente artículo muestra los resultados del análisis del the verification of the compliance of said materials with the INVIAS and. IDU- Artículo de Investigación/ResearchArticle te millones de llantas de neumático son desechadas anual- .. INVIAS – Instituto Nacional de Vías ( a). No forest (grass, crops, bare soil). 0– m. – m. 10 .. (INVIAS- Instituto Nacional de Vias, ) and have been shown to generate . reglamenta el articulo de la Ley 99 de modificado por el articulo.

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The costs of running a political campaign are significant and result in dissuading some candidates from running for office.

Government may routinely falsify registration lists to affect voting patterns and limit access to the polls. Some major parties or independent candidates are excluded or consistently negatively portrayed by mass media. Especially in local elections, many candidates are prevented from running as they receive threats from armed groups. Gonzales-Roglich for inivas in remote sensing analyses.

In jnvias, for the local elections, no limits were effectively imposed.

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In some cases, 30 revenue funds have been spent on other activities. Some appeals may not be acknowledged, and simple issues may take more than two months to resolve.

According to the Constitution, freedom of expression is guaranteed to every person. The military or other security forces are an active and explicit player in politics and overly support or oppose particular candidates or parties.

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Sometimes public authorities argue for reserve in many documents. Violent reprisals against media outlets are rare. The government may impose burdensome regulatory or bureaucratic requirements on observers to discourage their involvement.

According to the constitution, parties, movements and candidates should artivulo the volume, destination, and origin of their income art. A NO score is also earned if limits are applied by the government on opposition parties in a discriminatory manner. This score may still be earned if groups or individuals with a history of political violence or terrorism within last ten years are banned from forming media entities. In the particular context of the local elections, the influence of drug traffickers and self defense groups also posed problems.


The law also states that the Government through, the Ministry of Communications, should encourage practices of self regulation. In practice, the government does not create barriers to form a broadcast radio and TV media entity. According to the Administrative Contentious Code elections nullity artifulo be called when a candidate does not have the legal or constitutional conditions to take office, when there is fraudulent counting or alteration of ballots, and when there is violence against vote tellers.

The Decree of created the Governmental Commission for Publishing Information and Services on the Internet but such Commission has not been created in practice. In law, citizens have a right of access to government information and basic government records.

The appeal mechanisms for access to information requests are the same that are used artidulo appeal any other administrative decision and they also protect the basic right to information.

For example, according to the Law, at least 25 workers are required to artixulo a trade union. Division of broadcast bandwidth is widely viewed to be somewhat unfair.

The government regularly censors articuli prior to publication, especially politically sensitive or damaging corruption-related material. In some cases voters found to be registered in different locations. This is accomplished either directly by controlling servers hosting restricted content, or indirectly through threats or intimidation against the persons posting political content. In several cases, public officials use official publicity to campaign for their preferred candidates or parties in local elections.

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According to the United Nations Office for the Refugees and the High Commissioner for Human Rights, the murder was in retaliation for his denunciations about the improper use of properties that had been seized from drug traffickers to be turned over to displaced communities. These appeals must be answered in 10 business days. Support Center Support Center. Additionally, at the local level, there are reports about the lack of collaboration of entrepreneurs, media and candidates in reporting to the Tribunal of Electoral Guarantees information that could help establish violations of funding norms.


Local elections are held every four years, according to an electoral reform issued in However, the opposition has been recently affected, as in May the General Prosecutor Fiscalia decided to initiate investigations against some of its members for links to the FARC guerrilla.

This denial was clearly either the result of a lack of knowledge of the process of answering to information requests or a strategy to deny the journalist the information. The Director of the newspaper El Meridiano also reported threats against him and some of his journalists after publishing notes about corruption in the local Government of Cordoba.

Some additional delays may be experienced.

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In practice, where necessary, citizens can obtain a print media license within a reasonable time period. The National Jnvias Council -the supreme electoral authority- does not have enough personnel to fulfill its duties, especially in auditing accounts on party and campaign funding. According to the constitution, the Electoral Organization is an independent branch of the government, although its election by Congress makes it politically dependent on parties and Congress.

It seems that CSOs working on good governance and anti-corruption inviad do not receive these tax deductions. A NO score is earned if there are no limits on corporate contributions to political parties. Killings of union members between January and May increased by 70 percent when compared to the same period in