Austempered ductile iron castings, (or ADI castings) are ductile iron castings processed by a special heat treatment. The austempering process results in ductile. Austempered Ductile Iron (ADI) represents an alternative solution for the manufacturing of the housing of small planetary gearboxes, with the gear teeth obtained. Heat treated Ductile Iron with austenitic-ferritic matrix (ADI) has a high potential for the substitution of forged steel and conventional Ductile Iron. Advantages of.

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This page was last edited on 9 Augustat Typical Internal Damping log decrement X. While greatly enhancing the properties of a conventional Ductile Iron casting, the ADI process cannot compensate for casting defects that would impair mechanical properties. This table also compares the auustempering of K 1C to yield strength for these materials. The production of a high quality casting is essential but, by itself, not a sufficient condition to ensure optimum properties in ADI.

In addition to the casting section size and type, the austenitizing time is affected by the chemical composition, the austenitizing temperature and the nodule count.

It concluded that “the comparison of toughness of ADI and steels, should not be based on the impact energy measurements. This ensures temperature uniformity throughout the entire section. Austempering is a two-step process which yields a tough and strong bainitic microstructure. ADI is produced by an isothermal heat treatment known as austempering.

It provides superior mechanical properties relative to conventional heat-treating austempfring for cast iron. ASTM in-lb units. Courtesy of Wagner Castings and Tecumsen Products. For a combination of high toughness and abrasion resistance an austempering temperature in the range of F C should be used.

In many cases, the composition of an ADI casting differs little from that of a conventional Ductile Iron casting. To improve properties and reduce the sensitivity of the ADI to section size and nodule count, it is advisable to restrict the manganese level in ADI to less than 0. When a combination of high strength and abrasion resistance are required, an austempering temperature of F C will yield the best results. Harding, “The effects of metallurgical process variables on the properties of austempered ductile irons.


As shown in Figure 4. Copper Up to 0. The basic steps are the same whether applied to cast iron or steel and are as follows:.

Parts processed to the higher strength grades should receive austdmpering following processing sequence: The austenitizing time and temperature. One of the first uses of austempered steel was in rifle bolts during World War II. The austempering process dctile first commercially applied to Ductile Iron in and by world-wide production was approachingtonnes annually. Inthe Cummins Engine Co. The modulus of elasticity in tension for ADI lies in the range of The quench severity of the austempering bath.

The austempering time and temperature.

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When subjected to surface treatments such as rolling, peening or machining after heat treatment, the fatigue strength of ADI is increased significantly. The transformation is isothermal and takes place over a longer period of time as compared to martensitic transformation, hence this component of distortion caused by quenching is lower.

Typical steels that are austempered include: Defense The defense industry has been relatively slow to adopt ADI, however some of the applications include track links, armor, ordnance and various hardware for trucks and armored vehicles.

During this part of the process, the austenite isothermally transforms to bainite. The maximum section size and type of casting being quenched. The BCIRA data utilizes a relatively fast quench while the Dorazil data ausstempering an austempering bath with a lower quench severity.


The austenite in ADI has been stabilized with carbon during heat treatment and will not transform to brittle martensite even at sub-zero temperatures. The first commercially produced ADI part was a small crankshaft for a hermetically sealed refrigerator compressor.

There are many such savings possible in the specific case of converting a quench and tempered steel component to austempered ductile iron ADI.

Manganese can be both a beneficial and a harmful element. The sum total of these facts leads to a real advantage with regard to distortion of the final product when austempering is compared to a traditional quench and temper process.

The ADI process brings the material to a fully austenitic state with typical temperatures ranging from F to F. This can be translated into significant cost savings by adjusting the entire manufacturing process.

Austempering – Wikipedia

Considering its high strength, ADI has very good toughness, 2. This article needs additional citations for verification. As shown in Figures 4. Unlike conventional Ductile Iron, the un-notched fatigue limit of ADI does not follow the tensile properties, demonstrates a maxima at the condition of lower tensile strength and maximum stabilized austenite content in the metal matrix.

Austempered Ductile Iron (ADI) – Applied Process

Eventually austempered steel made its way into the automotive duftile where one of its first uses was in safety critical components. An assortment of ADI “ground engaging” parts. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Austenitic Ductile Irons D. In order for any transformation to take place, the microstructure of the metal must be austenite structure.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.