ENMOD CONVENTION PDF
Convention on the Prohibition of Military or Any Other Hostile Use of Environmental Modification Techniques (ENMOD). ENMOD. Entry into force: 5 October. ENMOD Review Conference – Preparatory Committee () . #Gambia ratifies the Cluster Munitions Convention, bringing the number of states parties to The Convention defines environmental modification techniques as changing — through the deliberate manipulation of natural processes — the dynamics.
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My purpose here is not to show why the rampant militarization of our planet is a major enmor of deterioration of our ecosystems. Nor is it to remind everybody of the obvious: My purpose, on November 6th, was to remind that the environment, which is always a collateral victim of conflicts and military activities, can also become a weapon in itself, and it is urgent that we concern ourselves with the legal instruments designed to prevent that risk.
International humanitarian law has two main instruments to protect the environment during hostilities. However, to respond to concerns raised by the prowess of the sorcerer’s apprentices, the law of armed conflict goes beyond this mere invitation to protection.
As early as the conventin, military research focused on processes capable of disrupting climatopes, and the first experiments of environmental modification techniques were born in the late 40s with the Convemtion project, the first major scientific effort of the US Army to convenyion precipitation by seeding clouds with chemicals, or “cloud seeding”.
Research will then expand as the Vietnam War unfolds. Its purpose was to flood the Ho Chi Minh Trail to slow enemy movement through increased rainfall caused by seeding the cloud masses with large amounts of silver iodide spread by air.
The result was satisfactory to the Pentagon, and the operation was continued from to The revelation of these experiences caused some emotions, as much on the Soviet side as at the US Senate, enough to convince the states at the Conference on Disarmament to adopt provisions prohibiting the use of the environment as a “weapon of war “.
COP 21, ENMOD and the 6th November : Peace and War at Stake | Grip
The Convention now has 77 States Parties. These are not enough but among them are the military powers: All member countries of the European Union have ratified or signed, with the exception of four: Croatia, Malta, Latvia, and France, nuclear power and host of the COP 21 meeting!
Article 8 of the Convention also provides the convening of conferences to review the operation cknvention the Convention, at intervals convntion not less than five years.
Three other should have taken place since, but the third one is still awaited. On 20 Marchthe Secretary-General of the United Nations solicited the views of States Parties concerning the convening of a third conference, which would have been convened immediately if at least ten States Parties had responded affirmatively. Only one State, Uruguay, comvention support for convening a new review conference, while two, USA and UK, stated that they see no need for such a conference Yet ENMOD suffers from several loopholes which could not be filled by the first two review conferences, despite the insistence of several states, particularly Sweden, Finland and the Netherlands.
Another concern is that the Convention only applies to the use of environmental modification techniques, and only against another State Party. Research and development are not prohibited, nor is the use of such techniques against a non-State Party.
COP 21, ENMOD and the 6th November : Peace and War at Stake
There seems to be a confusion between the techniques and their effects and the Convention to totally ignores the technological developments of the two last decades. Creeping militarization of climate engineering.
Taking advantage of the gap between the urgent need to fight against global warming and the weak measures provided by governments, climate engineering or geoengineering — defined as the deliberate large-scale technological action on the climate system to counter global warming or mitigate certain effectsclimate engineering is increasingly considered by some scientists as a possible response to the challenge posed to the planet.
Change the chemical composition of the oceans and wrap the planet with a layer of particles reflecting solar radiations are two examples among more or less 30 techniques mentioned by these sorcerers’ apprentices to reduce global warming and storing CO 2failing to reduce the emissions.
Environmental Modification Convention – Wikipedia
While many still oppose these hazardous undertakings in the civil area, the military is much less scrupulous and there are many signs of a rampant militarization of climate engineering. The historian of science James Fleming noticed that the fantasies of controlling weather and climate have always been closely related to commercial and military interests. During the 1st review conference inthe delegation of the Netherlands very appropriately reminded us of History to demonstrate the risk of international arms control instruments becoming obsolete: This third enkod never took place.
The Declaration fell into oblivion, thus breaking a process of successive reviews which could have ennmod to nothing less than totally prohibiting bombings….
Environmental Modification Convention
It is the only legal instrument capable of hindering military applications of technological advances that are developing in the field of environment and climate modifications at the risk of further compromise the fragile balances of our planet. France still has to ratify it and the European Union as a whole conventiion to call, without delay, for the convening of a new review conference.
On these questions, a must-read is: Another must-read on this question: Skip to main content. War, law and environment International humanitarian law has two enmoe instruments to protect the environment during hostilities.
A propos de cette page Auteur s: Peace and War at Stake. Ressources naturelles et conflits.