This section explains how to typeset vocal music, and make sure that the lyrics will be aligned with the notes of their melody. \musicglyph glyph-name (string). glyph-name is converted to a musical symbol; for example, \musicglyph #”l” selects the natural sign from the. If these automatic decisions are not satisfactory, beaming can be entered explicitly; see Manual beams. Beams must be entered manually if beams are to be.

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If these automatic decisions are not satisfactory, beaming can be entered explicitly; see Manual beams. Beams must be entered manually if beams are to be extended over rests. See the snippets rdference more information. Beaming patterns that differ from the automatic defaults can be created; see Setting automatic beam behavior.

Line breaks are normally forbidden when beams cross bar lines. This behavior can be changed as shown:.

Kneed beams are inserted automatically when a large gap is detected between the note heads. This behavior can be tuned through the auto-knee-gap property. A kneed beam is drawn refernce the gap is larger than the value of auto-knee-gap plus the width of the beam object which depends on the duration of the notes and the slope of the beam.

By default auto-knee-gap is set to 5. Manual beamsSetting automatic beam behavior. The properties of a beam are determined at the start of its construction and any additional beam-property changes liilypond occur before the beam has been completed will not take effect until the nextnew beam starts.

When automatic beaming is enabled, the placement of automatic beams is determined by three context properties: The default values of these variables may be overridden as described below, or alternatively the default values themselves may be changed as explained in Time signature. If a beamExceptions rule is defined for the time signature in force, that rule alone is used to determine the beam placement; the values of baseMoment and beatStructure are ignored.

1. Musical notation

If no beamExceptions rule is defined for the time signature in force, the beam placement is determined by the values of baseMoment and beatStructure. By default, beamExceptions rules are defined for most common time signatures, so the beamExceptions rules must be disabled if automatic beaming is to be based on baseMoment and beatStructure. The beamExceptions nptation are disabled by. When beamExceptions is set to ‘either due to an explicit setting or because no beamExceptions rules are defined internally for the time signature in force, the ending points for beams are on beats as specified by the context properties baseMoment and beatStructure.

By default, baseMoment is one over the denominator of the time signature. By default, each unit of length baseMoment is a single beat. Beam setting changes can be limited to specific contexts. If no setting is included in a lower-level context, the setting of the enclosing context will apply. When multiple voices are used the Staff context must be specified if the beaming is to be applied to all voices in the staff:.

The value of baseMoment can be adjusted to change the beaming behavior, if desired. When this is done, the value of beatStructure must be kilypond to be compatible with the new value of baseMoment. A quantity of type moment is created by the scheme function ly: For more information about this function, see Time administration. By default baseMoment is set to one over the denominator of the time signature.

Special autobeaming rules other than ending a beam on a beat are defined in the beamExceptions property. Beaming-rules is a scheme alist or list of pairs that indicates the beam type and the grouping to be applied to beams containing notes with a shortest duration of that beam type. Grouping is a scheme list indicating lilyond grouping to be applied to the beam. The grouping is in units of the beam type. A beamExceptions value must be complete exceptions list.


That is, every exception that should be applied must be included in the setting.

LilyPond Notation Reference: Reference to page numbers

It is not possible to add, remove, or change only one of the exceptions. While this may seem cumbersome, it means that the current beaming settings need not be known in order to specify lilyponv new beaming pattern. Refference the time signature is changed, default values of Timing. Setting the time signature will reset the automatic beaming settings for the Timing context to the default behavior.

Changing the default automatic beaming settings for a time signature is described in Time signature. Many automatic beaming settings for a time signature contain an entry for beamExceptions. The beamExceptions rule can override the beatStructure setting if beamExceptions is not reset.

This behavior is controlled by the context property beamHalfMeasurewhich has effect only in time signatures with 3 in the numerator:. When automatic beaming is enabled, the placement of automatic beams is determined by the context properties baseMomentbeatStructureand beamExceptions.

In the rules above, the beam-type is the duration of the shortest note in the beamed group. The beams of consecutive 16th or shorter notes are, by default, not subdivided. That is, the three or more beams stretch unbroken over entire groups of notes. This behavior can be modified to subdivide the beams into sub-groups by setting the property subdivideBeams. When set, multiple beams will be subdivided at intervals defined by the current value of baseMoment by reducing the multiple beams to just one beam between the sub-groups.

Note that baseMoment defaults to one over the denominator of the current time signature if not set explicitly. It must be set to a fraction giving the duration of the beam sub-group using the ly: Also, when baseMoment is changed, beatStructure should also be changed to match the new baseMoment:. Beamlets can be set to point in the direction of the beat to which they belong.

The first beam avoids sticking out referehce the default ; the second beam strictly follows the beat. Beat grouping within a measure is controlled by the context property beatStructure. For this, you specify the internal grouping of beats in a measure as a list of numbers in Scheme syntax before the time signature.

Such signs ease reading rhythmically complex modern music. Beam-ending rules specified referrnce the Score context apply to all staves, but can be modified at both Staff and Voice levels:.

If a score ends while an automatic beam has not been ended and is still accepting notes, this last beam will not be typeset at all. If a polyphonic voice ends while an automatic beam is still accepting notes, it is not typeset. The workaround for these problems is to manually beam the last beam in the voice or score.

By default, the Timing translator is aliased to the Score context. This means that setting the time signature in one staff will affect the beaming of the other staves as well.

Thus, a time signature setting in a later staff will reset custom beaming that was set in an earlier staff. One way to avoid this problem is to set the time signature in only one staff.

The default beam settings for the time signature can also be changed, so that the desired beaming will always be used. Changes in automatic beaming settings for a time signature are described in Time signature.


In some cases it may be necessary to override the automatic beaming algorithm. For example, the autobeamer will not put beams over rests or bar lines, and in choral scores the beaming is often set to follow the meter of the lyrics rather than the notes.

Such beams can be specified manually by marking the begin and end point with [ and ]. Grace note beams and normal note beams can occur simultaneously. Unbeamed grace notes refetence not put into normal note beams. Refwrence more strict manual control with the beams can be achieved by setting the properties stemLeftBeamCount and stemRightBeamCount. They specify the number of beams to draw on the left and right side, respectively, of the next note.

If either property is set, its value will be used only once, and then it is erased.

In this example, the last f is printed with only one beam on the left side, i. Flat flags on lone notes and refdrence nibs at the ends of beamed figures are both possible with a combination of stemLeftBeamCountstemRightBeamCount and paired [] beam indicators.

For right-pointing flat flags on lone notes, use paired [] beam indicators and set stemLeftBeamCount to zero see Example 1. For right-pointing nibs at the end of a run of beamed notes, referdnce stemRightBeamCount to a positive value. And for left-pointing nibs at the start of a run of beamed notes, set stemLeftBeamCount instead Example 3.

Sometimes it may make sense for a lone note surrounded by rests to carry both a left- and right-pointing flat flag. Do this with paired [] beam indicators alone Example 4. Direction and placementGrace notes.

LilyPond Notation Reference: 1. Musical notation

Feathered beams are used to indicate that a small group of notes should be played at an increasing or decreasing tempo, without changing the overall tempo of the piece. The extent of the feathered beam must be indicated manually using [ and ]and the beam feathering is turned on by specifying a direction to the Beam property grow-direction. If the placement of the notes and the sound in the MIDI output is to reflect the ritardando or accelerando indicated by the feathered beam the notes must be grouped as a music expression delimited by braces and preceded by a featherDurations command which referemce the ratio between the durations of the first and last notes in the group.

The square brackets show the extent of the beam and the braces show which notes are to have their durations modified. Normally these would delimit the same group of notes, but this is not required: In the following example the eight 16th notes occupy exactly the same time as a half note, but notationn first note is one half as long as the last one, with the intermediate notes gradually lengthening.

The first four 32nd notes gradually speed up, while the last four 32nd notes are at a constant tempo.

The spacing in the printed output represents the note durations only approximately, but the MIDI output is exact. We welcome your aid; please help us by reporting errors to our bug list. About automatic language selection. This page is for LilyPond General input and output 3.

LilyPond — Notation Reference

Notation manual tables A. LilyPond command index E. Setting automatic beam behavior.