Build It to Understand It: Ludology Meets Narratology in Game Design Space were realized, including the hotly debated question of ludology vs. narratology. LUDOLOGY MEETS NARRATOLOGY.: Similitude and differences between ( video)games and narrative. By Gonzalo Frasca. Finnish version. Ludology Meets Narratology – Download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read online.

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However, the player is not an external observer.

Build It to Understand It: Ludology Meets Narratology in Game Design Space

Therefore, it might not hurt to take one more look into this matter. Salen, Katie and Eric Zimmerman Ludus have a defined set of rules. We feel the need to insist that these two approaches were done in a very basic way, and both topics deserve a longer and more complete study.

The designer of the dramatic world could conclude – because they are designing the world for the player, not for the observer – that as long as the player experiences a true sense of interactive freedom that is agency transformation as variety luudology not an important design consideration Mateas, Pac-manDoomMario Bros.

Ludology Meets Narratology | An Introduction to Game Studies

In the same way, we have also just focused on ludusa particular kind of play, without yet paying attention to paidea. Narrative comprehension and film. As MUDs are multiplayer-based, they have an enormous advantage over adventure games: During the last quarter of a century, narrativity has been a key ludoloyy in the humanities.


At first sight, narratologists and game theorists ludollogy a different perspective on histories. Paidea videogames have no pre-designated goal.


The first was to explain the relationship mostly differences between games and narrative. Our point is simple: A narrative then, is just one of the possible histories that happens to narrarology actually occurred. The method of bBackward reasoning is thus not unique to narratology but is a method shared by both narratology and game theory.

Genette admits that there are no clearly marked boundaries between narration and description, but the distinction at least has the merit of reminding that narratives are too complex to be subsumed under a single label.

According to our definition of paideamany software programs that narrarology not videogames can enter into this category: In situations like these there are only players who prefer certain outcomes to others, and who have a set of strategies at their disposal. Interactors would have to be out of their mind–literally and metaphorically–to want to submit themselves to the fate of a heroine who commits suicide as the result of a love affair turned bad, like Emma Bovary or Anna Karenina.

London and New York: And because of this, game formalist studies are fragmented through different disciplines, and not very well developed.

This predominance of narrative in the humanities is no longer uncontested. However, these studies are generally independent, focusing on small characteristics and without looking for narratologyy patterns of understanding.

Build it to understand it: Ludology meets narratology in game design space

Vocabulaire technique et critique de la philosophie. Narration in the fiction film.


For example, a session of Tetris can hardly be recognized as narrative, mostly because of its lack of characters. As we have seen, as soon as the paidea player determines a goal with winning and losing rules, the activity may become a ludus.

For game theory, games and narratives are not categorically distinct entities, and game theory and narratology have quite a lot in common when it comes to theories and methodologies. The fact is that these computer programs share many elements with stories: Each combination of elements or functions is called a sequence.

Ludus and sessions are different things; the first is general, the second is particular.

In a similar way, our ludus scheme represents the possibilities of the game winning or losingbut not a particular session of ludus. As game theorists have demonstrated, in an iterated version of this game, mutual cooperation is the more beneficial and more productive strategy Axelrod,and this surely applies to narratology and games studies as well. The videogame designer can allow the player to perform man actions on any object in the environment like manipulate, examine, ljdology, break or use it.

Even more complex narrative characters are more coherent than the behavior of MUDs players, because behind them there is an author shaping their actions.